I remember when I started implementing lifestyle interventions to heal my Hashimoto’s, such as a nutrient dense diet. I experienced significant improvements in my symptoms, but then I would experience new symptoms arising, or some of my symptoms would eventually come back.
It wasn’t until I started diving into my gut health that I began to break the cycle and truly start feeling better. After running some tests, I discovered that I had multiple gut infections, including an overgrowth of the pathogenic yeast, Candida.
After making changes to my diet and adding in helpful supplements, I was able to eliminate the Candida overgrowth within six months. These changes may look different for different people — for me, cutting out fruit and adding in biotin helped tremendously and improved several of my Hashimoto’s symptoms.
While eliminating Candida wasn’t a one-stop-shop to healing my thyroid condition, it was a key step in my journey, because it urged me to dig deeper into the root causes driving my autoimmune condition.
Eliminating Candida can be tremendously helpful, not just in improving gut health, but also in bringing you one step closer to putting your symptoms into remission.
In this article, I’ll cover:
- Symptoms of Candida overgrowth
- Candida as a trigger of Hashimoto’s
- Who is more susceptible to contracting a Candida infection
- How to test for a Candida infection
- Treatment options for Candida
What Is Candida?
Candida is sometimes referred to as a microorganism, and other times as an infection.
So which is it? The reality is that Candida is both a microorganism and can be infectious.
Candida is a fungus, or more specifically a yeast, that can reside in our body. There are over 20 types of Candida yeast that can cause infections or symptoms, but the most common one is Candida albicans.
In healthy individuals, Candida albicans acts as a microorganism that is a natural part of the gut flora and doesn’t lead to issues. However, when there is an imbalance between Candida and the other microorganisms in the body, this fungus can become a “bad” or opportunistic pathogen. When this happens, Candida goes from being a natural fungus present in the overall microbiome, to a pathogenic infection.
There are other changes that also mark the transition of Candida albicans from microorganism to opportunistic pathogen, such as switching from a round, yeast form to an elongated, hyphae (branching) form.
A Candida overgrowth can occur in the intestines, vaginal tract, or moist membranous areas such as the mouth and/or nasal cavity (leading to sinusitis). In rare cases, it can even become a systemic infection and affect the following organs and systems:
- Brain and the central nervous system
- Bones, muscles, joints
When there is an overgrowth of Candida, it exerts its opportunistic or harmful effects, and health issues can arise. One mechanism that Candida uses to exert these effects is by releasing toxins that result in various symptoms.
Symptoms of a Candida Infection or Overgrowth
When Candida exerts its pathogenic actions and these toxins are secreted and released, many symptoms can arise, such as:
- Food sensitivities
- Bloating, especially from carbohydrate-rich foods
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Mood swings
- Bad breath
- Pain in muscles or joints
- Feeling cold
- Brain fog
- Vaginal burning/itching and recurrent “yeast infections”
- Weight gain
- Sinus congestion if the infection is in the nasal cavity
- Rash if the infection is on the skin
- An overall autoimmune disease progression
Interestingly, symptoms of Candida overgrowth or infection, such as fatigue and brain fog, can mirror symptoms of hypothyroidism and/or Hashimoto’s.
The History of Candida in the Medical Community
Candida has long been acknowledged as a normal microorganism or part of the human microbiome. It was also identified and acknowledged as a pathogen that could result in disease states and have repercussions on the immune system of individuals. However, in the past, the mainstream medical community only acknowledged these effects in those who were severely immuno-compromised or had immune-deficient conditions, such as AIDS, leukemia, or those who were undergoing chemotherapy or radiation.
It wasn’t until the 1980s when books such as The Missing Diagnosis by C. Orian Truss, and then The Year Connection: A Medical Breakthrough by William G. Crook came out, that controversy began regarding the prevalence and effects of Candida.
Since then, more medical professionals and the general population have acknowledged that Candida infections aren’t just an issue in those with severe immuno-compromised systems. They can be a contributing factor for other chronic and autoimmune conditions, such as Hashimoto’s.
The Effect of Candida On the Body and On the Thyroid
Candida can be a root cause of Hashimoto’s, and in some cases, it can be a primary factor leading to Hashimoto’s. However, in other cases, it can be a secondary root cause factor, meaning there is another imbalance that is driving both Candida and Hashimoto’s.
The change from a round, yeast form to an elongated, hyphae (branching) form allows Candida albicans to easily weaken and penetrate the intestinal barrier, resulting in intestinal permeability (or leaky gut), which is a prerequisite for autoimmune conditions such as Hashimoto’s. As such, Candida can cause or contribute to thyroid disease!
A leaky gut barrier can also allow for toxins and partially undigested food molecules to cross into the bloodstream. Food sensitivities, autoimmune disease progression, and other systemic problems are often seen as a result.
Furthermore, with a weakened barrier, the pathogenic yeast is able to release its various endo- (internal) and exo- (external) toxic byproducts. Each toxin that is released by Candida albicans (or other Candida strains) will have a different effect on the body and the thyroid gland.
One such toxin is acetaldehyde, which increases free radical activity in the body. Free radicals are highly unstable and reactive molecules that cause damage to the body and contribute to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases.
Another toxin of note that is released by Candida is gliotoxin, which can affect the immune system. This toxin is released in cases of intestinal and vaginal Candida albicans infections. In fact, one study found that individuals with vaginal candidiasis, or Candida albicans infection in the vaginal area, had high levels of gliotoxins in their vaginal secretions.
Candida and its toxins also have a significant effect on the immune system by throwing off its balance, and are tied to autoimmunity.
The immune system consists of different types of cells that all possess unique roles. One type is the helper T cell, of which there are four types: Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg. Usually, there is a balance of activity between these four types.
However, Candida activates Th17 cells which then release pro-inflammatory, or inflammation-promoting, cytokines such as IL-17. Because IL-17 is pro-inflammatory, it causes toxicity to the cells around it. Because of their mechanism and effects, Th17 cells can lead to autoimmunity. In addition to their link with Hashimoto’s, these cells have also been implicated in Graves’ disease.
Another way Candida throws off the balance is by increasing the amount of Th2 cells in the body. Whenever there is an imbalance in the immune system with one type of cell being over-activated, autoimmunity can result.
An over-activation of Th1 cells has been linked to Hashimoto’s. However, this is a general rule of thumb and does not apply to everyone. In some cases, an over-activation of Th2 leads to Hashimoto’s.
From a big picture perspective, Candida over activates the immune system and throws off the balance through its toxins, leading to an overactive immune system that, with other factors involved, starts to attack the body and the thyroid gland.
Who Is More Susceptible To Having an Overgrowth of Candida?
There are certain lifestyle and dietary factors that make some individuals more susceptible to a Candida overgrowth or infection.
High Levels of Estrogen
Research suggests that high levels of the sex hormone estrogen can drive Candida to change from its usual state to a pathogenic, or harmful, state. Estrogen does this by binding to Candida and starting a stress response that increases its pathogenic activity, eventually leading to an overgrowth or infection.
Estrogen dominance, or having an excess amount of estrogen, is common in many with Hashimoto’s. Please check out my article on estrogen dominance for more information.
Yes, medications can affect our microbiome! Specifically, the types of medications that contribute to the overgrowth of pathogens include:
- Medications that reduce sterility in the small intestine (including proton pump inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids)
- Antibiotics, as they can directly alter the microbial flora
- Medications that alter the pH of the microbiome, such as proton pump inhibitors
- Medications that can alter the body’s levels of hormones (estrogen and progesterone), like birth control pills
- Medications that weaken the immune system, such as corticosteroids
While these can promote the growth of pathogenic bacteria, they also allow yeast such as Candida to overgrow and become pathogenic.
For example, antibiotics reduce the amount of beneficial bacteria in our body, allowing opportunistic microorganisms, such as Candida, to flourish.
Furthermore, a low pH is crucial in preventing the growth of pathogens. However, medications that alter the ideal pH of the gut, create an environment in which pathogens can thrive.
Stress affects the gut microbiome and increases susceptibility to infections like Candida in a variety of ways. First, when an individual is stressed, the body will carry the distressing signals to the gut via the autonomic and circulatory systems in the body, increasing inflammation that promotes gut dysbiosis and leaky gut.
Secondly, stress releases the hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine, which allow pathogens to grow continuously. In fact, one study demonstrated that increased levels of these hormones, increase levels of opportunistic microorganisms, such as Candida, by 10,000-fold, and can increase their infectiousness in as little as 14 hours. An increased amount of opportunistic microorganisms creates an imbalanced gut flora that Candida thrives in.
Pregnancy also increases one’s risk of Candida. One study found that Candida growth or overgrowth happens more frequently in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women.
Another study found that Candida overgrowth has more negative impacts during the second trimester. These negative impacts include higher preterm birth rates and lower birth weight for newborns, for women who have Candida overgrowth in their second trimester, compared to women with Candida overgrowth in the first trimester. This is due to the hormonal fluctuations or, more specifically, the increase in estrogen throughout pregnancy.
While Candida exists naturally on our skin and in the sinuses, factors that increase the risk of Candida overgrowth in the sinuses or on the skin include:
- The use of corticosteroids (as they can alter the microbiome, leaving skin and sinuses more susceptible to an infection)
- Tight clothing made with materials (often synthetics) that do not allow the skin to breathe
- Humidity (which fungi and yeast thrive on!)
- And in some cases, neglecting hygiene
Did you know? Even small changes to a person’s diet can have a significant effect on the microbiome. For example, eating 15 grams of inulin or oligofructose can lead to a growth of Bifidobacterium, which is a beneficial probiotic that helps reduce the amount of pathogenic microorganisms, making it the dominant microorganism in the feces.
Likewise, consuming foods that feed pathogenic bacteria, can help them to thrive.
When it comes to Candida overgrowth, a diet rich in carbohydrates can increase the risk of a Candida overgrowth, as Candida feeds on carbohydrates and sugar (fruits, legumes, grains). Some studies investigating the effects of Candida have used 110 g of carbohydrates to mimic a carbohydrate-rich diet, suggesting that this amount of carbs can encourage Candida growth. However, this is by no means a standard rule and will vary for each individual.
Research suggests that it may be the specific carbohydrate glucose that promotes Candida overgrowth. On the other hand, another carbohydrate called fructose can inhibit Candida growth and may help prevent Candida infections.
Ketogenic diets may also continue to feed the Candida, as diets high in saturated fats can alter the gut microbiome. High amounts of saturated fats can decrease the amount of the beneficial Lactobacillus bacteria and increase the amount of Oscillibacter bacteria. A decrease in beneficial bacteria creates an environment in which Candida can thrive, as well as leads to gaps in the tight junctions, increasing the permeability of the intestines.
How To Test for a Candida Infection
Root cause testing can be helpful to get the right diagnosis and treatment, as symptoms of Candida are similar to symptoms of many other diseases and triggers.
The following potential gut-related root causes can lead to a yeast overgrowth or can mimic the symptoms of a yeast infection:
To check for a Candida infection as well determine which strain(s) need to be targeted, stool, urine, and in some cases, blood tests, can be utilized.
In my early days in functional medicine, I used to recommend functional medicine stool tests for Candida, such as the GI-MAP and the GI Effects from Genova. The latter also offers the advantage of listing botanical and pharmacological options that are effective against the specific strain(s) of yeast.
The stool tests have helped me identify my own Candida overgrowth when my level of Candida was extremely high. However, in the last few years, I have learned that the Organic Acids Test, a urine test from Great Plains Lab, is actually far more effective at detecting Candida in the body. This test not only shows the Candida overgrowth in the colon (as the stool tests do), but also tests for Candida metabolites in the body.
Treatment Options for Candida
In conventional medicine, Candida is only treated when women have “vaginal yeast infections” or when immuno-compromised HIV patients have an overgrowth of it.
But in functional medicine, we know that if not addressed, Candida has the potential to break down the walls of the intestinal lining, cause leaky gut, and allow for toxins and partially undigested food molecules to cross into the bloodstream.
There are both conventional and root cause options for treating a Candida overgrowth or infection.
Conventional Treatments for Candida
The conventional approach is to treat the infection with antifungal drugs such as fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, and flucytosine.
While diet and supplements can be immensely helpful in correcting a Candida overgrowth, medications such as nystatin and fluconazole can be helpful as well, and may even be necessary in some cases.
Nystatin at a dose of 500,000 units, taken as two capsules, three times per day for 30-90 days, is an antifungal medication that works directly in the gut.
Nystatin in that strength is available commercially as a liquid, but the commercial preparation has sugar (sucrose), which some may wish to avoid on the Anti-Candida diet! An alternate option is to work with a compounding pharmacist to get this prescription prepared without the added sugar.
Nystatin is also used to treat Candida infections of the skin, mouth, sinuses, throat, esophagus, and vagina. Your healthcare provider can determine the best route and dose of medication for you, depending on the area of the body that is affected.
A compounding pharmacist can also formulate the prescription specifically for your individual situation, or as ordered by your healthcare practitioner, to target the correct portion of the body.
I like nystatin because it has a better safety profile. However, it may not be effective for systemic yeast.
Diflucan (fluconazole) is an alternative medication used for yeast. It’s commonly used as just one pill for vaginal yeast infections, but for Candida overgrowth, it has to be taken for a longer period.
The pros of Diflucan are that it is a systemic medication, so it can get to yeast outside of the gut when taken orally, and it’s taken only once per day for 30-60 days. However, as a systemic medication, Diflucan has a much greater potential for side effects, including liver toxicity, when used longer term.
Root Cause Approach for Treating Candida
While medications may be necessary in some cases, I have seen a great deal of success in treating Candida infections with a dietary approach, and through the use of targeted supplements.
My three-pronged approach to correcting Candida includes:
- Preventing the yeast from growing further with diet and supplements
- Building up our defenses to build up our beneficial bacteria/yeast, displace the Candida, and prevent its conversion into its pathogenic form
- Eradicating the yeast with antifungal herbs
Let’s dive into each of these steps!
1. Addressing Overgrowth
The most common and effective ways to address the overgrowth of Candida are through dietary and lifestyle modifications.
- As mentioned earlier, stress can contribute to the overgrowth of Candida. I recommend addressing underlying adrenal issues to help build one’s resilience to stress. I have found taking Rootcology Adrenal Support, which is a blend of adaptogenic herbs designed to support a healthy stress response, to be particularly helpful.
- If you are prone to Candida infections in the sinuses, then using a Neti-pot to rinse your sinuses on a daily basis can be a helpful, supportive measure you can implement.
- If you are prone to fungal infections on your skin, practicing good hygiene, avoiding tight-fitting and sweaty clothes, and changing your clothes and bedsheets often can help prevent the build up of fungi (and moisture, which they love!) on the fabrics you come in contact with often.
There are various types of therapeutic diets that nutritionists and functional medicine providers may recommend for individuals on their healing journey. Diets that can be helpful for Candida are generally going to be low in sugar and carbohydrates.
There are two diet options I like to recommend when trying to eliminate or clear out Candida overgrowth: the Anti-Candida diet, and the Body Ecology diet.
You can think of these two options as basic and advanced versions of the Anti-Candida diet, with the general Anti-Candida diet as the basic version, and the Body Ecology diet as the advanced version.
General Anti-Candida Diet
As mentioned earlier, a diet high in sugar and carbs can contribute to Candida overgrowth.
Foods to Avoid:
It is generally recommended to starve the fungi through the Anti-Candida diet, which includes cutting out simple carbohydrates in addition to legumes (beans and peanuts), most nuts (except for almonds and pecans), most seeds (except for sunflower, sesame and pumpkin seeds), grains, dairy, corn, mushrooms, potatoes, fruit, caffeine, sweeteners (like honey, sugar and sugar substitutes), peppers, carrots, squash, beets, fruit juices, carbonated drinks, ketchup, vinegar, fried foods, yeast, and alcohol, which feed Candida.
Foods to Include:
Incorporate plenty of protein-rich foods such as fish, beef, chicken, turkey, and protein powders. Pairing the proteins with above ground vegetables (except those mentioned in the avoid list) and fats from seeds (sunflower, sesame, pumpkin) or nuts (almonds, pecans) can also help balance blood sugar and prevent the overgrowth of Candida.
To suppress Candida, follow the dietary instructions above for the first 10 days. Then reintroduce the foods back in slowly, while continuing to avoid foods high in sugar content such as artificial sweeteners, sugar, and of course, foods rich in carbohydrates.
Decreasing one’s intake of saturated fats and avoiding ketogenic diets may also help.
For more information on healing diets and how to tailor your current one to your needs, check out my article on the best diets for Hashimoto’s.
Body Ecology Diet
The Body Ecology Diet is a diet option that may be especially helpful for those who did not see a huge change in symptoms after trying the basic Anti-Candida diet described above. One major difference between the general Anti-Candida diet and the Body Ecology diet is that the latter places an emphasis on soaking grains and nuts (with minimal consumption of them).
In fact, in my survey of over 2000 individuals, of those that tried the Body Ecology diet, 34 percent reported improved thyroid labs, 41 percent saw improved mood, 71 percent saw improved energy, and 35 percent saw improved weight, demonstrating that this diet can be a great option for those who have Candida and Hashimoto’s.
Why is the Body Ecology (BE) diet so effective? While the GAPS (Gut and Psychology Syndrome) diet and SCD (specific carbohydrate) diet are grain-free and include liberal amounts of nuts, fruit, and fruit juices, the Body Ecology diet includes some well-soaked, easy-to-digest grains, and limits fruit and nuts, to starve off the pathogenic yeast and bacteria.
Furthermore, the Body Ecology diet introduces fermented foods that provide us with beneficial bacteria that displace Candida and create a thriving gut microbiome.
You’ve probably heard of fermented cabbage (or sauerkraut), but there are many more delicious fermented vegetables out there, to help you increase the amount of “good” bacteria in your gut. You can buy fermented cabbage at most health food stores (be sure to get the kind that’s kept in the fridge, as the beneficial bacteria die off within two weeks of being at room temperature), and you can also make your own fermented foods.
I love to make fermented coconut water (coconut water + BE Starter + stevia to taste) and fermented coconut cream (coconut cream + BE Starter + stevia to taste after fermentation). I also love making a mixture of various fermented vegetables, including cabbage, cucumber, carrots, broccoli, kale, spinach, and chard.
I learned how to ferment vegetables from Donna Gates (she talks about the technique in the videos on the BE Starter web page, and I was really excited to learn that she actually has her own Online Fermentation Course too!). 🙂
The Body Ecology diet also utilizes additional healing principles (such as balancing acid/alkaline foods, following the 80/20 rule, and implementing food combining). The diet itself is a bit complex, so if you want to learn more about the Body Ecology diet, I highly recommend also checking out Donna Gate’s website, Donna’s book, and the Body Ecology Diet 101 Course.
Please note that there are special considerations for people with Hashimoto’s following the Body Ecology diet:
- Advanced versions of the diet include dairy, which may not be appropriate for people with Hashimoto’s.
- Sea vegetables are also recommended on the Body Ecology diet but should be avoided by people with Hashimoto’s in the early stages of healing, as they contain high levels of iodine.
Additionally, some individuals with symptoms like pain in the body (and/or joint pain), burning with urination, and kidney stones, may need to limit oxalate-rich foods from their diet, as Candida can lead to oxalate sensitivity.
As always, be sure to modify your diet based on your individual needs.
2. Building Up Pathogenic Defenses
Using probiotics can be very helpful in crowding out Candida. I really like the beneficial yeast Saccharomyces boulardii for Candida. S. boulardii does not take up residence in the body, but boosts our natural gut defenses to help us clear out the yeast. As a bonus, unlike other probiotics, it is usually taken by those with SIBO. You can read more about S. boulardii, along with supplement dosage and warning information, here.
Several supplements have been shown to either prevent the conversion of Candida to the hyphae form or back to its yeast form, rendering it no longer pathogenic. One of these supplements is biotin.
Acetaldehyde is a highly reactive substance that can lead to cellular damage. Usually, the body uses a mineral called molybdenum to remove excess acetaldehyde. However, individuals with Candida may be deficient in this mineral. As such, Candida can lead to high levels of acetaldehyde.
As molybdenum is a co-factor for proper sulfur metabolism, a deficiency in this mineral can lead to symptoms of sulfur intolerance, such as skin rashes, asthma, and gas when eating sulfur-containing foods. (Sulfur-containing foods include eggs, cruciferous vegetables, garlic and onions, to name a few.)
If this sounds familiar, I recommend supplementing with Douglas Labs Molybdenum at a dose of 500 mcg (2 tablets) daily to restore molybdenum levels.
3. Suppressing the Yeast with Natural Antifungals
In addition to Saccharomyces boulardii, botanicals can also be used to treat fungal or yeast infections, such as oil of oregano and activated charcoal.
- Oil of Oregano: This herbal product contains a compound called carvacrol, which has been found to have powerful anti-yeast, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It’s often used for Candida as well as parasitic infections and food poisoning. A study in the Canadian Journal of Microbiology found that of several different essential oils, oil of oregano was most effective against Candida.
- I recommend taking 2 capsules, 3 times a day, for 60 days.
- Activated Charcoal: Activated charcoal helps bind up yeast toxins.
- I recommend taking 2-4 capsules daily for 60 days.
- Please note that it may also deplete magnesium levels and cause constipation. If this happens to you, taking additional magnesium may help you offset constipation. For more information, you can check out my article on how magnesium can help with addressing constipation and boosting thyroid health.
- S. Boulardii: As mentioned earlier, this beneficial yeast can also help.
- I recommend taking 5 billion-15 billion CFUs, 2-4 times per day (up to 8 per day) for 60 days.
As always, please work with a knowledgeable practitioner to determine which protocols would be best for your individual needs.
Addressing Resistant Yeast
Yeast organisms can become resistant to medication and herbs alike, so if you are someone that has a yeast overgrowth and are struggling to eradicate it completely, you may want to consider cycling your yeast medications and herbs, or using a combination of a few at a time.
Another thing to consider when you have “resistant yeast” is whether you have other root causes at play that are contributing to its growth. While conventional medicine only acknowledges the role of yeast infections in people who are severely immuno-compromised, natural medicine practitioners of the past have over-diagnosed yeast as the root cause for everything!
This is only partially true. In some cases, Candida can be the primary root cause. In other cases, yeast can be a secondary root cause. This means that it may only be overgrowing because there is an underlying imbalance that needs to be corrected. In that case, treating the yeast will definitely help symptoms, but there’s a chance that the yeast (and symptoms) will return after treatment is stopped.
If you are someone with yeast that never seems to go away, despite diet and treatments, you should consider that you may have a different underlying root cause.
Potential root causes that can lead to a yeast overgrowth or mimic the symptoms of a yeast infection include:
- Parasitic infections – Infections like Blastocystis hominis can create a favorable environment for yeast such as Candida to grow.
- Heavy metal toxicity – Yeast overgrows whenever there are heavy metals present. In fact, yeasts are often successful and abundant in metal-polluted environments because they absorb the cations, or positively charged molecules, which makes them resilient and resistant to pathogens. Heavy metal toxicity is a contributing factor to the development of Hashimoto’s (more about toxins in my patient guide, Hashimoto’s: The Root Cause, as well as in my article on heavy metals and Hashimoto’s). In such cases, following a liver support protocol can help detox these metals from the body.
- Mold toxicity – Fungus begets fungus! If you have been exposed to mold, there’s a chance that mold spores have taken residence in your body and have created an environment that is supportive of their reproduction, as well as the reproduction of certain yeasts such as Candida. (By the way, symptoms of mold toxicity can be similar to those of Candida overgrowth. If you suspect you may have been exposed to mold, you may need to identify/remove its source and eradicate the mold from your body. Check out my article on mold toxicity and Hashimoto’s for more information.)
While Candida is a natural part of our microbiome, it has the ability to become pathogenic. In its pathogenic hyphae form, it can create intestinal permeability, cause an immune system imbalance, and become a root cause factor for Hashimoto’s. Its effects on the body can lead to symptoms such as bloating, fatigue, and constipation. However, as these symptoms are similar to other conditions, such as SIBO and mold toxicity, it’s important to get tested to confirm a Candida overgrowth.
While receiving a diagnosis of Candida overgrowth can be disheartening, there are steps you can take to correct it and achieve a healthy gut! With the use of supplements, dietary changes, and antifungal herbs/medications, you can rest assured knowing you’re taking a positive step forward in not only healing your gut, but your thyroid condition as well.
To dive deeper into this topic, I outline a step-by-step approach to correcting a Candida overgrowth in my book, Hashimoto’s Protocol.
As always, I am here to support you on your health journey and hope that some of these resources help you find the diet and interventions that will make you feel better. Feel free to ask your own questions about diet and Hashimoto’s in the comments below, or on my Facebook page and Instagram posts!
P.S. You can also download a free Thyroid Diet Guide, 10 thyroid friendly recipes, and the Nutrient Depletions and Digestion chapter of my Root Cause book for free by signing up for my weekly newsletter. You will also receive occasional updates about new research, resources, giveaways, and helpful information.
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Please note: Originally published in June 2016, this article has been updated for accuracy and thoroughness.